Energy in laparoscopic surgery
Epublication WebSurg.com, Jan 2015;15(01). URL: http://websurg.com/doi/lt03enferreira002
In this key lecture, Doctor Helder Ferreira outlines important points regarding the use of energy in surgery. First, the evolution of energy use in medicine over the years and the advent of electrosurgery are described. The types of energy are detailed with a focus on electrical energy, namely basic principles, effect of temperature on cells and tissues, monopolar and bipolar energy properties and use. The specific complications of electrical energy use are explained here (i.e., direct coupling, insulation failure, capacitive coupling and grounding pad failure).