Arthroscopic Wafer procedure: abrasion of the distal ulnar head in ulnocarpal conflicts
Epublication WebSurg.com, Sep 2011;11(09). URL: http://websurg.com/doi/vd01en3277
The ulnocarpal conflict is not a rare condition and should be taken into account in the event of ulnocarpal pain. The conflict is created by too narrow a space of the ulnar head and the ulnar edge of the lunate and the triquetrum. During loading and ulnar deviation of the wrist, a direct contact between these bones is produced. This leads to degenerative changes on the cartilage and produces pain. The origin may be a congenital positive ulnar situation, or a trauma impairing the natural leveling of the forearm bones. We distinguish a fresh traumatic condition (ulnar impaction syndrome) from a chronic condition (ulnar impingement syndrome). The midcarpal bones may also suffer from a similar condition, which is the hamate tip syndrome. Diagnosis is made by clinical examination including the ulnocarpal stress test, standard X-rays, MRI enhanced with endovenous contrast and subsequent wrist arthroscopy. Therapeutic options include the ulnar shortening osteotomy and the resection of the distal head of the ulna. Decision can be made depending on the state of the TFCC, the age of the patient and the collateral changes in the wrist. If the lesion occurs in young patients without any concomitant lesion, a shortening osteotomy is more often chosen. In all other conditions, the less invasive choice for the minimal resection of the distal ulnar head is made by arthroscopic and open surgery. The camera is introduced through the 3-4 portal and the burr through the 6R portal. At the beginning, a 3.5 burr —in more trained hands a 4.2 burr— is used to resect about 2-3 mm of the distal ulnar head during supination and pronation movements. Care is taken not to resect the foveal area or the DRUJ. After the operation, a comfort splint can be adapted for 3-4 days, and immediate physiotherapy is initiated.