LIVE INTERACTIVE SURGERY: POEM for type 2 achalasia and incidental esophageal leiomyoma
Epublication WebSurg.com, Jan 2016;16(01). URL: http://websurg.com/doi/vd01en4657
POEM (peroral endoscopic myotomy) is an emerging procedure, which has evolved from the era of NOTES. The most cardinal indication for POEM is achalasia of the cardia. Other indications include diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus, and surgically failed cases. The steps of POEM include the following: mucosotomy, submucous tunnelling, myotomy, closure of mucosotomy. The myotomy is started 2 to 3cm distal to the mucosotomy and is continued to the end of the tunnel at 2 to 3cm distally to the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). A partial myotomy is most commonly performed by means of careful dissection of circular fibers, hence avoiding longitudinal fibers to prevent entry into the mediastinum. The mucosotomy is then closed to prevent any leakage with the use of endoscopic clips or of an endoscopic suturing device. About the EndoFLIP™ (Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe) Imaging System: this is a functional endoluminal imaging probe, which helps in the assessment of gastroesophageal junction distensibility and compliance after the procedure. Complications of POEM: Inadvertent mucosotomy is the most common complication. Complications due to insufflation (pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum) can be controlled by using carbon dioxide for insufflation. Esophageal leak is the most dreaded complication with rates ranging from 0 to 5.6%.