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EUS gastrojejunal anastomosis with HOT AXIOS® stent after Whipple pancreatectomy, filling blind loop through percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

Epublication WebSurg.com, Feb 2019;19(02). URL: http://websurg.com/doi/vd01en5558

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  • 2019-02-19
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A 67-year-old woman underwent a Whipple pancreatectomy for cancer one year earlier. She was readmitted to hospital for abdominal pain and subocclusion with jaundice. CT-scan showed a dilatation of the jejunal stump with associated biliary tree dilatation. Percutaneous biliary transhepatic drainage (PBTHD) was performed and a stenosis was diagnosed in the afferent loop, accountable for subocclusion and secondary jaundice. Two double pigtails were delivered by the interventional radiologist through PBTHD across the jejunal stricture without resolution of symptoms. Biliary drainage was left in place causing patient discomfort. EUS gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA) using the HOT AXIOS® stent was attempted in order to bypass the stricture. EUS allows to find the jejunal stump, detected by mechanical staple line visualization. Additionally, the blind loop was detected as it was filled up with liquid and contrast through the PBTHD. The HOT AXIOS® stent was delivered without any complications (VIDEO). Afterwards, flow of bile and liquid was observed through the lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS). PBTHD was immediately removed. Recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on a normal diet with no pain on the following day. EUS-GJA via a LAMS is a well-described technique in experts’ hands (Technical review of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided gastroenterostomy in 2017. Itoi T, Baron TH, Khashab MA, et al. Dig Endosc 2017;29:495-502). Special skills and techniques are necessary in order to recognize the exact small bowel loop to puncture (Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastrojejunostomy with a lumen-apposing metal stent: a multicenter, international experience. Tyberg A, Perez-Miranda M, Sanchez-Ocaña R et al. Endosc Int Open 2016;4:E276-81). In that case, we show that filling this loop using a previous transhepatic access should be considered an alternative in case of alterated anatomy. Also direct EUS transgastric injection of contrast medium in the dilated biliary tree to fill up the jejunal stump could be considered an option to perform GJA by a single operator in a single session after safely recognizing the right loop. In addition, fluoroscopy helps to detect the exact loop puncture site. In conclusion, GJA using a LAMS is feasible, safe and useful, and transhepatic injection of liquid and contrast medium helps to adequately recognize the jejunal stump after biliopancreatic surgery.