Minimally invasive treatment of urinary stones: percutaneous nephrostolithotomy
The description of the minimally invasive treatment of urinary stones: percutaneous nephrostolithotomy covers all aspects of the surgical procedure used for the management of urinary stones. Operating room set up, position of patient and equipment, instruments used are thoroughly described. The technical key steps of the surgical procedure are presented in a step by step way: puncture area, main steps, stent placement, calyceal puncture, tract dilation, stone localization, fragmentation of calculi, drainage. Consequently, this operating technique is well standardized for the management of this condition.